7 . Manuscript Formatting – Abstract

An abstract should briefly state the objective, time and location of the study, basic procedures (selection of study participants, settings, measurements, analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes with frequencies and percentages, and their statistical and clinical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations, note important limitations, and not over-interpret findings. Do not use references in abstracts.

Structure of an abstract should be in accordance to the article type:

Structured Abstracts:

  • Word Count: 250 words
  • Article categories: Audit, innovation, meta-analysis, original articles, research articles and systematic reviews
  • A structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs, under the following headings: objective, methods, results and conclusion.

Unstructured Abstracts

  • Word Count: 150 words
  • Article categories: Case reports, case series, narrative review, short communications, short reports and special communications.
  • An unstructured abstract should follow a logical sequence
  • Write the clinical trial number after the abstract in case of randomised controlled trials. Please read our policy on clinical trial numbers here .