Tinnitus related handicap in daily living among Pakistani population – a multicenter study

Supplementary Files




Objective: To determine the impact of tinnitus-related handicap on daily living of tinnitus sufferers and factors associated with tinnitus severity.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017at Al-Nafees Medical College Hospital, Islamabad, Capital Development Authority Hospital, Islamabad, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur; and Wassay Ear Nose Throat Clinic, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. Tinnitus patients of either gender aged 15-75 years were included. Detailed history was taken and examination was conducted. Data was collected using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, and was analysed using SPSS 21.

Results: of the 152 patients, 87(57.20%) were males. The overall mean age was 44.10+16.06 years. Tinnitus was severe in 53(34.87%), while catastrophic severity was noted in 26(17.10%). Cases with hearing loss and male gender suffered significantly more in daily life activities (p<0.05). Severity of tinnitus handicap was associated with the type of tinnitus sound (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Gender, hearing loss and type of tinnitus sound were found to be associated with the severity of the condition.

Key Words: Daily living, Quality of life, Tinnitus, Tinnitus handicap inventory.