Pregnancy outcomes amongst adolescents/young adults at tertiary-care hospital in low-middle-income country: ten-year retrospective record-review

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Objective: Adolescent pregnancies are known to be associated with adverse outcomes. Our objective was to compare pregnancy outcomes amongst adolescents (young adolescents YA: 15-17 years; older adolescents OA: 18-19 years) and young adults (20 to 25 years)

Methods: Study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Ten-year retrospective record review was done through convenience sampling. Data was collected on predesigned proforma. Participants were 396 primiparous adolescents (15-19 years) with singleton low-risk pregnancy. Reference-group included 410 primiparous, low-risk, young adults. Pregnancies complicated with preexisting diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, renal disorders or cardiac diseases were excluded. Maternal /neonatal outcomes were compared amongst groups.

Results: Out of 806 charts reviewed, 75 (9.3%) were YA, 321 (39.8%) were OA and 410 (50.9%) were 20-25 years old young adults. Most of the un-booked cases were in young adolescents; 17 (22.7% YA), 41 (12.8% OA) and 33 (8.0% reference -group) (p-value 0.001). This group also booked at a later gestational age; YA (19.6±10.4 weeks), OA (17.2±9.3 weeks) and controls (15.5n±8.8 weeks) (p-value 0.002). Gestational age at delivery was not significantly different among the groups. Adolescents had a decreased likelihood of cesarean section with youngest group having 29% less chance of cesarean delivery (OR 95% CI 0.41, 0.2) compared to women of 20-25 years of age.  Difference in maternal/neonatal outcomes remained insignificant between groups at univariate and multivariate analysis.