Association of vitamin D deficiency to the risk of preeclampsia in Saudi Arabia
Objective: Vitamin D levels have shown significant geographical distribution, therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate its relationship to a specific geographic area with a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency to the important maternal manifestation of preeclampsia. This study established the association of vitamin D deficiency to preeclampsia among women of reproductive age.
Method: It is a retrospective case-control study done to measure serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women receiving care at the King Fahad Medical City Riyadh with preeclampsia (n=100) and normal pregnancy (controls, n=200) from 2012 to 2014. Odds of developing preeclampsia with vitamin D deficiency were calculated using logistic regression analysis.
Results: The mean serum vitamin D level was 25.35?ng/ml in controls and 15.95?ng/ml in pre-eclampsia women. Comparing to those who had a serum vitamin D level of ?50?ng/ml, the odds ratio of developing preeclampsia in women with vitamin D deficiency was 4.2 (95% CI=1.23-14.35) while adjusting for age, BMI and duration of pregnancy.
Conclusion: The risk of developing preeclampsia might increase by up to 4-fold in women with vitamin D deficiency. Since preeclampsia could lead to maternal and neonatal complications, vitamin D could be added during pregnancy to decrease these adverse consequences.
Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency; preeclampsia; BMI; hypertension.