Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Primary Immunodeficiency Patients from a Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan


  • Hamid Nawaz Tipu Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Dawood Ahmed Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan




Objective: The aim of this study was to describe and identify clinical presentation of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Characteristic quantitative and qualitative immunological abnormalities have been described which help in establishing a definitive PID diagnosis.

Methods: Cross sectional study in Immunology department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from Jan 2016 to Dec 2018. Sixty patients of different PIDs including humoral defects, combined immunodeficiency, phagocytic defects and other miscellaneous disorders, were diagnosed over a period of 3 years in our institute. Their clinical presentation and laboratory data are presented in this study.

Results: In 3 years, 40 (66%) males and 20 (33%) females were diagnosed, with 13 (21.6%) patients of humoral deficiency, 22 (36.6%) of severe combined immunodeficiency, 18 (30%) of phagocytic defects and 7 (11.6%) of other miscellaneous disorders. Maximum patients belonged to Punjab province, i.e., 23 (38.3%). Their mean age for initiation of symptoms was 7 + 12.6 months, while diagnosis was made at mean age of 26 + 39.28 months, in all groups combined. Respiratory infections were commonest presentation, in 46 (76.6%) patients. Also 46 (76.6%) patients had consanguineous parents. Presence of family history of PID in 27 (45%) patients is not associated with an earlier diagnosis (p 0.955). Each group of patients carried characteristic laboratory findings.

Conclusion: PIDs should be suspected in offsprings with warning signs coming from consanguineous parents. There is a need to introduce genetic diagnosis of PIDs in order to timely diagnose less characteristic PID presentations. Continuous...





Research Article