Objectives: To find out the association between fat mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism and risk factors frequently associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Method: The case-control study was conducted January 2020 to March 2021 at the Ziauddin University, Karachi, and comprised deoxyribonucleic acid samples for fat mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism from non-diabetic Pakistani population. Group A comprised non-diabetics with parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and Group B had controls without parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Analysis was based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction. Data was analysed using SPSS 25.
Results: Of the 150 subjects, 75(50%) each were in Group A and Group B. There were 53.3% males and 46.7% females in Group A compared to 46.7% males and 53.3% females in Group B. Overall, 48% subjects were single and 52 % were married. A difference in frequency of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (rs9939609) alleles, such as TT, AA TA, was noted between the groups (p>0.999). TA allele was found to be associated with Group A (33) 44% (p=0.40), while TT allele was associated with Group B (41) 54% (p=0.414). AA allele was equally distributed between the groups (6) 8% (p=1.00).
Conclusion: The TT allele of fat mass and obesity-associated gene was found to be an independent allele associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Key Words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, FTO gene, BMI, SNP, Multifactorial inheritance, Family history, Genetic variant PCR and RFLP.