Endoleaks: current concepts and treatments
Endoleaks are the most common complications following endovascular aneurysm repair. Depending upon their origin, there are five types of endoleaks, types I-V, which can also be classified as direct and indirect endoleaks. Direct endoleaks type 1 and III have higher risk of aneurysm rupture due to rapid sac expansion, and require immediate correction. Indirect endoleaks types II, IV and V have a relatively benign course compared to direct endoleaks. Most of them resolve with time and very few of them need interventions upon sac enlargement. Type V endotension is a special situation where there is sac enlargement despite no demonstrable endoleak. Proper planning and appropriate selection of stent-graft can prevent most of these endoleaks. With improvement in stent-graft technology, the incidence of endoleaks has been reduced. The current narrative review was planned to describe the pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment options for each type of endoleak.